Notes on the water-column REE dataset

This Rare Earth Element (REE) data was collated as part of a continuing effort to understand the water-column distribution of the lanthanide's and to assess their use as tracers of micronutrient sources, redox and particle scavenging intensity.

This version of the data-set was updated by Peter Scott in September 2012.

If you know of existing REE data not included in this dataset please contact

The dataset: The file is .csv.  "ref. no." refers to the publication number as in the list below (please cite accordingly).  North and east are positive; depths are in metres; REE measurements are in pmol/kg and have been converted where originally quoted in other units. Filter size (where known) is in µm. Undetermined values are listed as NaN.

Numbered notes on data set:

1.       Depths revised and Gd data added in 1985 (ref 30)

2.       Conversion from 10-12 g/g to pmol/kg applie

3.       Values available for Dy, Er, Lu – but are illegible

4.       Lat-Long from Piepgras & Jacobsen (1988)

5.       Republished results of Sholkovitz and Schneider (1991)

6.       Depth quoted as 3 to 10m. Shown as 5m depth

7.       Acid soluble REE concs at the same stations

8.       Conversion from pmol/l to pmol/kg applied (assumed seawater density of 1.035)

9.       Lat-Longs estimated by google earth overlay of image

10.   Suspected contamination on samples raised in paper - data removed

11.   Latitude and Longitude calculated using DataThief from map figure

View data

References containing water column REE data

(note: Numbers correspond to "ref. no." column in dataset)

1. German, C. R., Masuzawa, T., Greaves, M. J., Elderfield, H. & Edmond, J. M. 1995. Dissolved Rare-Earth Elements in the Southern-Ocean - Cerium Oxidation and the influence of hydrography. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 1551-1558. link to paper

2. Elderfield, H. & Greaves, M. J. 1982. THE RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS IN SEA-WATER. Nature, 296, 214-219. link to paper

3. Debaar, H. J. W., Bacon, M. P., Brewer, P. G. & Bruland, K. W. 1985. Rare-Earth Elements In The Pacific And Atlantic Oceans. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 49, 1943-1959. link to paper

4. Debaar, H. J. W., Bacon, M. P. & Brewer, P. G. 1983. Rare-Earth distributions with a positive Ce anomaly in the western North-Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 301, 324-327. link to paper

5. Zhang, Y., Lacan, F. & Jeandel, C. 2008. Dissolved rare earth elements tracing lithogenic inputs over the Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 55, 638-652. link to paper

6. Nozaki, Y. & Alibo, D. S. 2003. Importance of vertical geochemical processes in controlling the oceanic profiles of dissolved rare earth elements in the northeastern Indian Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 205, 155-172. link to paper

7. Nozaki, Y., Alibo, D. S., Amakawa, H., Gamo, T. & Hasumoto, H. 1999. Dissolved rare earth elements and hydrography in the Sulu Sea. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 63, 2171-2181. link to paper

8. German, C. R. & Elderfield, H. 1990. Rare-Earth Elements In The Nw Indian-Ocean. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 54, 1929-1940. link to paper

9. Zhang, J. & Nozaki, Y. 1996. Rare earth elements and yttrium in seawater: ICP-MS determinations in the East Caroline, Coral Sea, and South Fiji basins of the western South Pacific Ocean. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 4631-4644. link to paper

10. Alibo, D. S. & Nozaki, Y. 1999. Rare earth elements in seawater: Particle association, shale-normalization, and Ce oxidation. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 63, 363-372. link to paper

11. Wang, Z. L. & Yamada, M. 2007. Geochemistry of dissolved rare earth elements in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Environmental Geology, 52, 779-787. link to paper

12. Nozaki, Y. & Alibo, D. S. 2003. Dissolved rare earth elements in the Southern Ocean, southwest of Australia: Unique patterns compared to the South Atlantic data. Geochemical Journal, 37, 47-62. link to paper

13. Zhang, J. & Nozaki, Y. 1998. Behavior of rare earth elements in seawater at the ocean margin: A study along the slopes of the Sagami and Nankai troughs near Japan. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 1307-1317. link to paper

14. Bertram, C. J. & Elderfield, H. 1993. The geochemical balance of the Rare-Earth Elements and Neodymium isotopes in the oceans. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 1957-1986. link to paper

15. Sholkovitz, E. R. & Schneider, D. L. 1991. Cerium redox cycles and Rare-Earth Elements in the Sargasso Sea. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 55, 2737-2743. link to paper

16. Hongo, Y., Obata, H., Gamo, T., Nakaseama, M., Ishibashi, J., Konno, U., Saegusa, S., Ohkubo, S. & Tsunogai, U. 2007. Rare earth elements in the hydrothermal system at Okinawa Trough back-arc basin. Geochemical Journal, 41, 1-15. link to paper

17. Stordal, M. C. & Wasserburg, G. J. 1986. Neodymium isotopic study of Baffin-bay water - sources of REE from very old terranes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 77, 259-272. link to paper

18. German, C. R. & Elderfield, H. 1989. Rare-Earth Elements in Saanich inlet, British-Columbia, a seasonally anoxic basin. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 2561-2571. link to paper

19. German, C. R., Holliday, B. P. & Elderfield, H. 1991. Redox cycling of Rare-Earth Elements in the suboxic zone of the black-sea. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 55, 3553-3558. link to paper

20. Piepgras, D. J. & Jacobsen, S. B. 1992. The behavior of Rare-Earth Elements in seawater - precise determination of variations in the North Pacific water column. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 56, 1851-1862. link to paper

21. Sholkovitz, E. R., Landing, W. M. & Lewis, B. L. 1994. Ocean particle chemistry - the fractionation of Rare-Earth Elements between suspended particles and seawater. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 1567-1579. link to paper

22. Amakawa, H., Alibo, D. S. & Nozaki, Y. 2000. Nd isotopic composition and REE pattern in the surface waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and its adjacent seas. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 1715-1727. link to paper

23. Hongo, Y., Obata, H., Alibo, D. S. & Nozaki, Y. 2006. Spatial variations of rare earth elements in North Pacific surface water. Journal of Oceanography, 62, 441-455. link to paper

24. Lacan, F. & Jeandel, C. 2005. Acquisition of the neodymium isotopic composition of the North Atlantic Deep Water. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 6. link to paper

25. Hara, Y., Obata, H., Doi, T., Hongo, Y., Gamo, T., Takeda, S. & Tsuda, A. 2009. Rare earth elements in seawater during an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom of the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS-II). Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 56, 2839-2851. link to paper

26. Censi, P., Mazzola, S., Sprovieri, M., Bonanno, A., Patti, B., Punturo, R., Spoto, S. E., Saiano, F. & Alonzo, G. 2004. Rare earth elements distribution in seawater and suspended particulate of the Central Mediterranean Sea. Chemistry and Ecology 20, 5, 323-343. link to paper

27. Tachikawa, K., Jeandel, C., Vangriesheim, A. & Dupre, B. 1999. Distribution of rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in suspended particles of the tropical Atlantic Ocean (EUMELI site). Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers, 46, 733-755. link to paper

28. Stichel, T., Frank, M.,  Rickli, J., Hathorne, E.C.,  Haley, B.A.,  Jeandel, C.,  Pradoux, C. 2012. Sources and input mechanisms of hafnium and neodymium in surface waters of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 94, 22–37. link to paper

29. Debaar, H. J. W., German, C. R., Elderfield, H. & Vangaans, P. 1988. Rare-Earth Element distributions in anoxic waters of the cariaco trench. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 52, 1203-1219. link to paper

30. Debaar, H. J. W., Brewer, P. G. & Bacon, M. P. 1985. Anomalies in Rare-Earth distributions in seawater - Gd and Tb. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 49, 1961-1969. link to paper

31. Schijf, J., Debaar, H. J. W., Wijbrans, J. R. & Landing, W. M. 1991. Dissolved Rare-Earth Elements in the Black-sea. Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers, 38, S805-S823. link to paper

32. Greaves, M. J., Rudnicki, M. & Elderfield, H. 1991. Rare-Earth Elements in the Mediterranean-sea and mixing in the Mediterranean outflow. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 103, 169-181. link to paper

33. Lacan, F. & Jeandel, C. 2004. Neodymium isotopic composition and rare earth element concentrations in the deep and intermediate Nordic Seas: Constraints on the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water signature. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 5. link to paper

34. Shimizu, H., Tachikawa, K., Masuda, A. & Nozaki, Y. 1994. Cerium and Neodymium isotope ratios and REE patterns in seawater from the North Pacific-ocean. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 323-333. link to paper

35. Alibo, D. S. & Nozaki, Y. 2000. Dissolved rare earth elements in the South China Sea: Geochemical characterization of the water masses. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 105, 28771-28783. link to paper

36. Sholkovitz, E. R. 1993. The geochemistry of Rare-Earth Elements in the Amazon river estuary. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 2181-2190. link to paper

37. Lacan F., Tachikawa K., Jeandel C. 2012. Neodymium isotopic composition of the oceans: a compilation of seawater data. Chemical Geology, 300, 177-184. link to paper

38. Grenier & Jeandel. Unpublished Data

39. Garcia,  Solona & Jeandel. Unpublished Data

40. Zheng, X. Unpublished Data