Notes on the water-column Th and Pa dataset

This Th and Pa data was collated as part of a continuing effort to understand the water-column and sedimentary distribution of 232Th, 230Th and 231Pa and to assess the use of these radionuclides as proxies for ocean dust input, sediment accumulation, paleo-productivity, and past ocean-circulation.

This version of the data-set was updated by James Wilkinson in July 2012. 

If you know of existing 232Th, 230Th or 231Pa data not included in this dataset please contact

The dataset: The file is .csv.  "ref. no." refers to the publication number as in the list below (please cite accordingly).  North and east are positive; depths are in metres; Th and Pa measurements are in dpm/1000litres and have been converted where originally quoted in other units.  Undetermined values are listed as -9.999. 

View data

References containing water column 230Th, 232Th and/or 231Pa data

(note: Numbers correspond to "ref. no." column in dataset)

1. L. Guo, P.H. Santschi, M. Baskaran and A. Zindler, Distribution of dissolved and particulate 230Th and 232Th in seawater from the Gulf of Mexico and off Cape Hatteras as measured by SIMS, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 133, 117-128, 1995. Link to paper.

2. J.K. Cochran, H.D. Livingston, D.J. Hirschberg and L.D. Surprenant, Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide distributions in the northwest Atlantic ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 84, 135-152, 1987. Link to paper.

3. Y. Nozaki, H.-S. Yang and M. Yamada, Scavenging of thorium in the ocean, J. Geophys. Res. 92(C1), 772-778, 1987. Link to paper.

4. M.P. Bacon and R.F. Anderson, Distribution of thorium isotopes between dissolved and particulate forms in the deep ocean, J. Geophys. Res. 87(C3), 2045-2056, 1982. Link to paper.

5. M.P. Bacon, C.-A. Huh and R.M. Moore, Vertical profiles of some natural radionuclides over the Alpha ridge, Arctic Ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 95, 15-22, 1989. Link to paper.

6. C.-A. Huh and T.M. Beasley, Profiles of dissolved and particulate thorium isotopes in the water column of coastal Southern California, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 85, 1-10, 1987. Link to paper.

7. M.M. Rutgers van der Loeff and G.W. Berger, Scavenging of 230Th and 231Pa near the Antarctic polar front in the South Atlantic, Deep-Sea Res. 40(2), 339-357, 1993. Link to paper.

8. Y. Nozaki, Y. Horibe and H. Tsubota, The water column distributions of thorium isotopes in the western North Pacific, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 54, 203-216, 1981. Link to paper.

9. Y. Nozaki and T. Nakanishi, 231Pa and 230Th in the open ocean water column, Deep-Sea Res. 32(10), 1209-1220, 1985. Link to paper.

10. A. Mangini and R.M. Key, A 230Th profile in the Atlantic ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 62, 377-384, 1983. Link to paper.

11. Y. Nozaki and Y. Horibe, Alpha-emitting thorium isotopes in northwest Pacific deep waters, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 65, 39-50, 1983. Link to paper.

12. W.S. Moore, The thorium isotope content of ocean water, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 53, 419- 426, 1981. Link to paper.

13. R.F. Anderson and M.Q. Fleisher, Th and Pa isotopes from Equatorial Pacific JGOFS, In Preparation.

14. Y. Nozaki and M. Yamada, Thorium and protactinium isotope distributions in waters of the Japan Sea, Deep-Sea Res. 34(8), 1417-1430, 1987. Link to paper.

15. M. Roy-Barman, J.H. Chen and G.J. Wasserburg, 230Th-232Th systematics in the central Pacific Ocean The sources and the fates of thorium, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 139, 351-363, 1996. Link to paper.

16. Y. Nozaki and H.-S. Yang, Th and Pa isotopes in the waters of the western margin of the Pacific near Japan: Evidence for release of 228Ra and 227Ac from slope sediments, J. Oceanograph. Soc. Jap. 43, 217-227, 1987. Link to paper.

17. J.A. Hoff, R.L. Edwards, K.O. Buesseler and R.A. Belastock, TIMS measurements of 230Th and 232Th in liter-sized samples of seawater from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, in press.

18. S.B. Moran, J.A. Hoff, K.O. Buesseler and R.L. Edwards, High precision 230Th and 232Th in the Norwegian Sea and Denmark by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(19), 2589-2592, 1995. Link to paper.

19. S. Luo, T.-L. Ku, M. Kusakabe, J.K.B. Bishop and Y.-L. Yang, Tracing particle cycling in the upper ocean with 230Th and 228Th: An investigation in the equatorial Pacific along 140oW, Deep-Sea Res. 42(2-3), 805-829, 1995. Link to paper.

20. S. Colley, J. Thomsom and P.P. Newton, Detailed 230Th, 232Th and 210Pb fluxes recorded by the 1989/90 BOFS sediment trap time-series at 48oN, 20oW, Deep-Sea Res. 42(6), 833-848, 1995. Link to paper.

21. S. Vogler, J. Scholten, M. Rutgers van der Loeff and A. Mangini, 230Th and 232Th in seawater determined by thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (TIMS): Implications for particle dynamics in the North Atlantic, EPSL, in press.

22. J.C. Scholten, M.M. Rutgers van der Loeff and A. Michel, Distribution of 230Th and 231Pa in the water column in relation to the ventilation of the deep Arctic basins, Deep-Sea Res. 42(6), 1519-1531, 1995. Link to paper.

23. J.K. Cochran, D.J. Hirschberg, H.D. Livingston, K.O. Buesseler and R.M. Key, Natural and anthropogenic radiocuclide distributions in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean: Scavenging rates and circulation timescales, Deep-Sea Res. 42(6), 1495-1517, 1995. Link to paper.

24. S. Vogler, J. Scholten, M. Rutgers van der Loeff and A. Mangini, 230Th in the eastern North Atlantic: the importance of water mass ventilation in the balance of 230Th, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 156, 61-74, 1998. Link to paper.

25. S.B. Moran, M.A. Charett, J.A. Hoff, R.L. Edwards and W.M. Landing, Distribution of 230Th in the Labrador Sea and its relation to ventilation, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 150, 151-160, 1997. Link to paper.

26 H.N. Edmonds, S.B. Moran, J.A. Hoff, J.N. Smith and R.L. Edwards, Protactinium-231 and Thorium-230 abundances and high scavenging rates in the Western Arctic ocean, Science 280, 405-407, 1998. Link to paper.

27. S. Vogler, J. Scholten, M. Rutgers van der Loeff and A. Mangini, Th-230 in the eastern North Atlantic: The importance of water mass ventilation in the balance of Th-230, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 156(1-2), 61-74, 1998. Link to paper.

28. S.B. Moran, C.-C. Shen, S.E. Weinstein, L.H. Hettinger, J.H. Hoff, H.N. Edmonds and R.L. Edwards, Constraints on deep water age and particle flux in the Equatorial and Souther Atlantic ocean based on seawater 231Pa and 230Th data, Geophysical Research Letters 28(18), 3437-3440, 2001. Link to paper.

29. H.N. Edmonds, S.B. Moran, H. Cheng and R.L. Edwards, 230Th and 231Pa in the Arctic Ocean: implications for particle fluxes and basin scale Th/Pa fractionation, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 227, 155-167, 2004. Link to paper.

30. A. Okubo, H. Obata, T. Gamo, H. Minami and M. Yamada, Scavenging of 230Th in the Sulu Sea, Deep-Sea Research II 54, 50-59, 2007. Link to paper.

31. L. Coppola, M. Roy-Barman, S. Mulsow, P. Povinec and C. Jeandel, Thorium isotopes as tracers of particle dynamics and deep water circulation in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (ANTARES IV), Marine Chemistry 100, 299-313, 2006. Link to paper.

32. S.B. Moran, C.-C. Shen, H.N. Edmonds, S.E. Weinstein, J.N. Smith and R.L. Edwards, Dissolved and particulate 231Pa and 230Th in the Atlantic Ocean: constraints on intermediate/deep water age, boundary scavenging, and 231Pa/230Th fractionation, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 203, 999-1014, 2002. Link to paper.

33. A. Okubo, H. Obata, Y. Nozaki, Y. Yamamoto and H. Minami, 230Th in the Andaman Sea: Rapid deep-sea renewal, Geophysical Research Letters 31, L22306, 2004. Link to paper.

34. A. Okubo, H. Obata, S. Luo, T. Gamo, Y. Yamamoto, H. Minami and M. Yamada, Particle flux in the twilight zone of the eastern Indian Ocean: A constraint from 234U-230Th and 228Ra-228Th disequilibria, Deep-Sea Research I 54, 1758-1772, 2007. Link to paper.

35. A. Okubo, H. Obata, T. Gamo and M. Yamada, 230Th and 232Th distributions in mid-latitudes of the North Pacific Ocean: Effect of bottom scavenging, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 339-340, 139-150, 2012. Link to paper.

36. L.F. Robinson, N.S. Belshaw and G.M. Henderson, U and Th concentrations and isotope ratios in modern carbonates and waters from the Bahamas, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68(8), 1777-1789, 2004. Link to paper.

37. A.L. Thomas, G.M. Henderson and L.F. Robinson, Interpretation of 231Pa/230Th paleocirculation proxy: New water-column measurements from southwest Indian Ocean, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 241, 493-504, 2006. Link to paper.

38. S.M. Trimble, M. Baskaran and D. Porcelli, Scavenging of thorium isotopes in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 222, 915-932, 2004. Link to paper.

39. C. Venchiarutti, M. Rutgers van der Loeff and I. Stimac, Scavenging of 231Pa and thorium isotopes based on dissolved and size-fractionated particulate distributions at Drake Passage (ANTXXIV-3), Deep-Sea Research II 58, 2767-2784, 2011. Link to paper.

40. Y.-T. Hsieh, G.M. Henderson and A.L. Thomas, Combining seawater 232Th and 230Th concentrations to determine dust fluxes to the surface ocean, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 312, 280-290, 2011. Link to paper.

41. J.C. Scholten, J. Fietzke, A. Mangini, C.-D. Garbe-Schönberg,  A. Eisenhauer, R. Schneider and P. Stoffers, Advection and scavenging: Effects on 230Th and 231Pa distribution off Southwest Africa, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 271, 159-169, 2008. Link to paper.